Whose touch is this? Understanding the Agency Trade-off Between User-driven touch vs. Computer-driven Touch
(to be appear / in publication process)
In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (full paper)
Daisuke Tajima, Jun Nishida, Pedro Lopes, and Shunichi Kasahara.
Force-feedback interfaces actuate the user’s to touch involuntarily (using exoskeletons or electrical muscle stimulation); we refer to this as computer-driven touch. Unfortunately, forcing users to touch causes a loss of their sense of agency. While we found that delaying the timing of computer-driven touch preserves agency, they only considered the naive case when user-driven touch is aligned with computer-driven touch. We argue this is unlikely as it assumes we can perfectly predict user-touches. But, what about all the remainder situations: when the haptics forces the user into an outcome they did not intend or assists the user in an outcome they would not achieve alone? We unveil, via an experiment, what happens in these novel situations. From our findings, we synthesize a framework that enables researchers of digital-touch systems to trade-off between haptic-assistance vs. sense-of-agency.
More details is coming soon.
This is a collaborative research project with Sony CSL, Superception lab and University of Chicago, Human Computer Integration Lab